Vacunas contra la COVID-19 (coronavirus) (2023)

Investigadores en todo el mundo han estado trabajando a velocidad récord para crear vacunas contra laCOVID-19. A menos de un año del comienzo de la pandemia, esa meta se volvió realidad.

Dos vacunas (de Pfizer-BioNTech y Moderna) han recibido la aprobación completa de la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos de EE.UU. y otra (de Johnson & Johnson) se está administrando bajo una autorización de uso de emergencia limitada. Esta designación de la FDA permite el acceso a tratamientos y otras herramientas médicas durante una emergencia de salud pública cuando no existen otras opciones.

¿Qué es exactamente una vacuna?

Una vacuna es algo que ayuda a una persona a desarrollar la inmunidad a una enfermedad infecciosa. Funciona introduciendo intencionalmente en el cuerpo una forma inactiva de un germen causante de una enfermedad, o algo similar. Esto entonces estimula la producción de anticuerpos del sistema inmunitario, las proteínas que ayudan a proteger a la persona contra una infección futura.

(Video) ¿Cuáles son los diferentes tipos de vacunas contra el COVID y cómo funcionan?

Piensa en ello como un entrenamiento para tu sistema inmunitario: lo estás “enviando al gimnasio y preparándolo para defenderse” en caso de que se encuentre con el germen, dice el doctor Tony Moody, profesor adjunto de Pediatría e Inmunología en la Facultad de Medicina de Duke University e investigador principal del Duke Human Vaccine Institute. “Básicamente, lo que hace una vacuna es enseñar al sistema inmunitario a manejar algo antes de que te enfrentes con la versión real, para que, con suerte, cuando eso ocurra, estés preparado y puedas librarte de ello rápidamente”, él agrega.

¿Qué vacunas contra el coronavirus están disponibles actualmente?

Las vacunas de Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson (J&J) y Novavax son los únicos productos disponibles para las personas en Estados Unidos. Los CDC recomiendan las vacunas de Pfizer y Moderna en lugar de la versión de una sola inyección de la vacuna de J&J porque esta se ha relacionado con un trastorno de coagulación de la sangre poco común pero grave. Sin embargo, la vacuna de J&J seguirá estando disponible para las personas que “no pueden o no están dispuestas a recibir la vacuna ARNm”, dijeron los CDC.

(Video) Vacunas contra el COVID: Verdades, mitos y preguntas

La vacuna de Pfizer está aprobada para las personas de 16 años o más, pero está disponible para las personas de 6 meses a 15 años con autorización de uso de emergencia. La vacuna de Moderna también está autorizada para niños de 6 meses o más y está aprobada para personas de 18 años o más. Ambas vacunas de Novavax y J&J están autorizadas para las personas de 18 años o más.

Las cuatro vacunas reducen el riesgo de infectarse con el virus, y se ha descubierto que son muy eficaces para prevenir una enfermedad grave por una infección. Según datos federales, las hospitalizaciones en mayo del 2022 fueron 3.8 veces más altas en las personas no vacunadas de 65 años o más, en comparación con las personas vacunadas y con la dosis de refuerzo.

¿Son seguras las vacunas?

Los participantes de los ensayos clínicos para probar las vacunas experimentaron efectos secundarios, incluidos dolor en el lugar de la inyección, fiebre, escalofríos, dolor de cabeza, dolor muscular y dolor en las articulaciones. La gravedad de estos síntomas suele ser leve a moderada y los efectos son temporales. También están alineados con los efectos secundarios que algunas personas experimentan de otras vacunas, incluida la vacuna contra la gripe y la vacuna para prevenir la culebrilla.

Se han producido reacciones más graves, pero son poco comunes. La anafilaxia, una reacción alérgica grave, ha ocurrido en un pequeño número de personas después de la vacunación contra la COVID, dicen los CDC. Por eso es posible que te pidan que esperes unos 15 minutos después de la inyección o el refuerzo para darles seguimiento a los síntomas. Los proveedores de vacunas están equipados con medicamentos para tratar rápidamente la reacción.

Los funcionarios de salud también están monitoreando informes poco comunes de miocarditis y pericarditis en adolescentes y adultos más jóvenes que han recibido las vacunas de Pfizer y Moderna. La mayoría de estos pacientes que recibieron cuidados respondieron bien a los medicamentos y se sintieron mejor rápidamente, dicen los CDC.

(Video) ¿Cómo funcionarían las vacunas contra el COVID-19 en el cuerpo?

Otro evento poco común que se ha relacionado con la vacuna de J&J es un trastorno de coagulación muy infrecuente, pero grave, llamado síndrome de trombosis-trombocitopenia. Al mes de marzo se habían confirmado 60 casos de esta enfermedad; 9 fueron fatales. Las mujeres jóvenes de entre 30 y 40 años corren mayor riesgo. Después de analizar la evidencia del evento adverso, el 16 de diciembre los CDC decidieron recomendar las vacunas de Pfizer y Moderna sobre la versión de J&J; meses después, la FDA limitó su uso. Sin embargo, la vacuna de J&J todavía está disponible para quienes “no pueden o no están dispuestos” a vacunarse con el producto de Pfizer o Moderna.

Además, se recomiendan las vacunas de refuerzo para las personas que han sido completamente vacunadas. Las personas de 12 años o más pueden recibir un refuerzo específico contra ómicron de Pfizer al menos dos meses después de su última dosis (incluida la dosis de refuerzo); las personas de 18 años o más pueden optar por un refuerzo similar de Moderna y seguir el mismo plazo. Los expertos esperan que estos refuerzos actualizados brinden una mejor protección contra las variantes del coronavirus que actualmente circulan y que se espera que continúen propagándose este otoño e invierno.

¿Cuánto cuesta la vacuna?

El Gobierno federal compró miles de millones de dosis de vacunas con el dinero de los contribuyentes, y las personas en Estados Unidos no tendrán que pagar nada para recibirla, incluida la vacuna de refuerzo, aunque esto podría cambiar en el futuro.

¿Puedo contraer la COVID-19 incluso después de vacunarme?

Debido a que ninguna vacuna tiene una eficacia del 100%, pueden ocurrir infecciones posvacunación, y se están reportando más a medida que ómicron y sus subvariantes se propagan por el país. No obstante, los expertos enfatizan que las vacunas y los refuerzos siguen brindando mucha protección contra la hospitalización y la muerte.

Sin embargo, las infecciones posvacunación pueden contribuir a la propagación de la COVID-19, por lo que los funcionarios de salud recomiendan que las personas vacunadas en zonas de alta transmisión comunitaria usen una mascarilla en entornos públicos cerrados.

(Video) ¿Qué debemos saber sobre las vacunas contra la COVID-19?

¿Necesito la vacuna si ya tuve COVID-19?

Incluso si tuviste COVID-19, los CDC recomiendan que te vacunes y recibas el refuerzo, ya que las investigaciones aún no han demostrado cuánto dura la protección de una infección previa por coronavirus. Además, la vacuna puede ofrecer una mejor protección contra la COVID-19 que una infección previa. Según un estudio de los CDC(en inglés), las personas no vacunadas que ya habían tenido COVID-19 tuvieron mayores probabilidades de volver a contraer COVID-19, en comparación con las personas completamente vacunadas.

¿Tienes alguna duda? Habla con tu médico.

(Video) Las vacunas contra la COVID-19 y el cáncer: Dr. Francisco Marty

¿Es bueno que haya más de una vacuna disponible?

Por supuesto. “De hecho, es muy conveniente”, dice William Schaffner, profesor y experto en enfermedades infecciosas de la Facultad de Medicina de Vanderbilt University, porque eso significa que “hay más fabricantes de vacunas trabajando para realmente producir la vacuna, y esto nos permite tratar de vacunar más rápido a la población en Estados Unidos y más allá”.

Kathleen Neuzil, profesora de Vacunología y directora del Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health de la Facultad de Medicina de University of Maryland, se hace eco del sentimiento de Schaffner y hace referencia a la vacuna contra la gripe para compararla: hay varias fórmulas en el mercado, incluida la vacuna inyectable de alta dosis y la vacuna en aerosol nasal, por ejemplo, que se recomiendan para diferentes poblaciones. “En realidad, necesitamos que todas las personas en el mundo puedan recibir esta vacuna. Así que, para mí, [tener más de una opción] es algo positivo, porque necesitamos muchas”, añade.

Nota de redacción: este artículo, que originalmente se publicó el 1.º de mayo del 2020, se ha actualizado para incluir nueva información.

FAQs

How long does vaccine immunity last for COVID? ›

Earlier research from the CDC suggested that protection from the Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines could start to fade around 4 months after a booster dose. Protection against COVID-19 hospital stays seemed to drop from 91% soon after receiving a booster dose to 78% at the 4-month mark.

Is Pfizer or Moderna better? ›

Both of the mRNA vaccines available in the US are highly effective against severe COVID-19, but recent studies suggest that Moderna's elicits a stronger immune response and might be better at preventing breakthrough infections.

Can I take Tylenol after COVID booster? ›

Apply a clean, cool, wet washcloth to your arm to help reduce pain. It may also help to exercise your arm. If you have a fever, drink plenty of fluids and dress lightly. Over-the-counter medicines like Tylenol® (acetaminophen) or Motrin® or Advil® (ibuprofen) can help with pain, fever, headache, or discomfort.

How long does it take for the booster shot to take effect? ›

How long does it take for my booster to start working? Your body's immune response kicks in almost immediately after a booster dose. It may take around two weeks to reach maximum protection.

Will COVID be a yearly vaccine? ›

Meanwhile, White House officials have suggested that COVID-19 vaccinations are moving down a path toward becoming yearly, with a schedule similar to flu shots. The annual COVID-19 vaccines will match the circulating strain of coronavirus that is predominant in the population at that time. "That's a likely scenario.

Can you still get COVID-19 after being fully vaccinated? ›

COVID-19 vaccines also help protect against infection. People who are vaccinated may still get COVID-19.

Does Moderna cause blood clots? ›

Do COVID-19 vaccines cause blood clots? The Moderna or Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccines have not been shown to increase the risk of blood clots in multiple studies.

Which Covid vaccine is the safest? ›

COVID-19 Vaccine Safety — What We Know

The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are strongly recommended as safe and effective at preventing serious illness or death from COVID-19. From December 2020 to December 2021, about 470 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine have been given in the U.S.

Which vaccine is better for Omicron? ›

"Based on the data supporting their authorizations, the bivalent COVID-19 vaccines are expected to provide increased protection against the currently circulating omicron variant," says Dr.

How do you feel better after COVID booster? ›

Use an ice pack or cool, damp cloth to help reduce redness, soreness and/or swelling at the place where the shot was given. A cool bath can also be soothing. Drink liquids often for 1-2 days after getting the vaccine. Take an over the counter pain reliever unless you have any specific contraindication.

What over the counter medicine is good for COVID? ›

Most people with COVID-19 have mild illness and can recover at home. You can treat symptoms with over-the-counter medicines, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), to help you feel better.

Do you need to wait 15 minutes after Covid vaccine? ›

You may be asked to wait for 15 minutes after having the vaccination. This is in the unlikely event you have a serious reaction to the vaccine. Research has found it's very rare to have a serious allergic reaction to the vaccine. If this does happen, it usually happens within minutes.

Do you have to wait 8 months to get COVID booster? ›

For everyone else ages 18 and up, regardless of which COVID-19 vaccine you received for your initial vaccinations, you may receive a Pfizer or Moderna bivalent booster at least two months after completion of your primary series or most recent booster.

Should I get a second COVID booster? ›

CDC recommends that people ages 5 years and older receive one updated (bivalent) booster if it has been at least 2 months since their last COVID-19 vaccine dose, whether that was: Their final primary series dose, or. An original (monovalent) booster.

Do I need a booster shot? ›

Everyone 5+ who has had their primary series should get the updated booster at least 2 months after any COVID vaccine or booster dose. You should get the updated booster even if you have received a booster shot before. Children 6 months to 17 years old may receive either the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine.

How often will I need a Covid booster? ›

There are 2 booster doses of the coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine you may be able to get: a 1st booster for everyone aged 16 and over, and some people aged 12 to 15 who are at high risk from COVID-19, once they have completed their primary COVID-19 vaccination course.

Why do I keep getting Covid? ›

Reinfection with the virus that causes COVID-19 means a person was infected, recovered, and then later became infected again. After recovering from COVID-19, most individuals will have some protection from repeat infections. However, reinfections do occur after COVID-19.

Why do we need Covid booster? ›

Boosters improve your protection against serious illness or death from COVID-19 infection. They are safe and recommended for most people, including children. Updated boosters help restore protection that has decreased since your previous vaccination and provide better protection against newer variants.

What are some symptoms of the new Omicron variant of COVID-19? ›

All of the variants, including omicron BA.5, cause similar COVID-19 symptoms:
  • runny nose.
  • cough.
  • sore throat.
  • fever.
  • headaches.
  • muscle pain.
  • fatigue.
19 Oct 2022

How quickly do Omicron variant symptoms appear? ›

“Most patients are coming in with three or four days of incubation,” Meza said.

How long is a vaccinated person contagious with COVID? ›

If you have a severe illness or a weakened immune system, you can be contagious for up to 3 weeks. If you've been fully vaccinated against COVID-19, you may only be contagious for a few days, even if you have a weakened immune system.

What are the signs of a blood clot? ›

  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Faster than normal or irregular heartbeat.
  • Chest pain or discomfort, which usually worsens with a deep breath or coughing.
  • Coughing up blood.
  • Very low blood pressure, lightheadedness, or fainting.

How do you check for blood clots? ›

Duplex ultrasonography is an imaging test that uses sound waves to look at the flow of blood in the veins. It can detect blockages or blood clots in the deep veins. It is the standard imaging test to diagnose DVT. A D-dimer blood test measures a substance in the blood that is released when a clot breaks up.

What does a blood clot feel like? ›

A blood clot in a leg vein may cause pain, warmth and tenderness in the affected area. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one or more of the deep veins in the body, usually in the legs. Deep vein thrombosis can cause leg pain or swelling. Sometimes there are no noticeable symptoms.

Are Moderna and Pfizer the same? ›

Moderna uses the same mRNA technology as Pfizer-BioNTech and had a similarly high efficacy at preventing symptomatic disease when the companies applied for authorization; it also needs to be stored in freezer-level temperatures.

Which Covid vaccine is best for over 65? ›

Getting vaccinated prevents severe illness, hospitalizations and death. People 65 and older who received both doses of either Pfizer or Moderna vaccines showed a 94% reduced risk of COVID-19 related hospitalization. Unvaccinated people should get vaccinated and continue masking until they are fully vaccinated.

Which Corona vaccine is best? ›

COVID vaccine Covishield was developed by Oxford-AstraZeneca, and is being manufactured by the Serum Institute of India. It is a viral vector vaccine, and is about 90 percent effective. There are several vaccination centers across India that have Covishield available.

Should I mix Pfizer and Moderna? ›

Public health has also made it clear that it is safe to mix and match Pfizer and Moderna COVID vaccines for booster shots.

Is AstraZeneca still being used? ›

The COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca authorised under Regulation 174 remains in use and its product information has been updated in line with the product information of the GB CMA . The MHRA regularly publishes reports of the safety of the COVID-19 vaccines.

Is the Johnson and Johnson vaccine safe? ›

Summary. On April 24, the Western States Scientific Safety Review Workgroup concluded the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is safe and effective and recommended resuming use of the vaccine for all eligible Californians.

Is a sore throat a side effect of COVID booster? ›

Most side effects are not serious and should go away on their own. Some of the side effects of the vaccine are similar to symptoms of COVID-19. The vaccine will NOT cause or give you COVID-19. Symptoms such as a sore throat, runny nose, or cough are NOT side effects of the vaccine.

Is it OK to take Advil after COVID booster? ›

The risks of any side effects from the vaccine are far less dangerous than the potential for serious illness or death from COVID-19. You may be instructed by the vaccine provider that you can take acetaminophen or another OTC medicine such as ibuprofen or aspirin to help relieve any vaccine side effects.

What happens to your body after COVID booster? ›

A vaccine booster dose increases antibodies and memory cells and boosts our protection. 4. Two weeks after vaccination our bodies have built up protection. Our immune system's memory cells remember how to fight COVID-19.

What is the fastest way to recover from COVID at home? ›

Most people with coronavirus (COVID-19) or symptoms of COVID-19 feel better within a few weeks.
...
Treating a high temperature
  1. get lots of rest.
  2. drink plenty of fluids (water is best) to avoid dehydration – drink enough so your pee is light yellow and clear.
  3. take paracetamol or ibuprofen if you feel uncomfortable.

What drugs help with COVID? ›

Many medications are authorized for emergency use to treat COVID-19, including oral treatments like Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir and ritonavir) and Lagevrio (molnupiravir). In November 2022, the FDA authorized anakinra (Kineret) for emergency use. It can treat certain hospitalized adults with pneumonia caused by COVID-19.

How is the COVID cough? ›

A common symptom of COVID-19 is a dry cough, which is also known as an unproductive cough (a cough that doesn't produce any phlegm or mucus). Most people with dry cough experience it as a tickle in their throat or as irritation in their lungs.

How long do the side effects of Pfizer vaccine last? ›

Side effects generally go away in a few days. Even if you don't experience any side effects, your body is building protection against the virus that causes COVID-19. Adverse events (serious health problems) are rare but can cause long-term health problems. They usually happen within six weeks of getting a vaccine.

Is the booster the same as the vaccine? ›

A COVID booster shot is an additional dose or doses of a vaccine given after the protection provided by the original shot(s) has begun to decrease over time.

Can you get 2 vaccines in the same arm? ›

If more than one injection is given in a single limb (arm or leg), separate the injections by a minimum of 1". The diagrams below illustrate options for administer- ing one, two, or three vaccinations in a single arm, spaced at least 1" apart. Additional injections can also be administered in the opposite arm.

Which is better Moderna or Pfizer? ›

Both of the mRNA vaccines available in the US are highly effective against severe COVID-19, but recent studies suggest that Moderna's elicits a stronger immune response and might be better at preventing breakthrough infections.

Which booster is better Pfizer or Moderna? ›

Some “mix-and-match” studies have found that getting a different booster may even lead to a slightly better immune response than getting the same vaccine again. However, the data isn't fully clear. There isn't a clear advantage to switching between the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines.

How long are boosters good for? ›

Some health experts have suggested that more time between boosters—up to six months—might be preferred. That's because someone who recently got a booster already has more virus-fighting antibodies in their bloodstream. Antibodies gradually wane over time, and another shot too soon won't offer much extra benefit.

Do I need a fourth Covid shot? ›

You are up to date if you receive all COVID-19 vaccine doses recommended for you, even if you become ill with COVID-19. You do not need to be re-vaccinated or receive an additional booster.

How long does it take for Covid booster shot to take effect? ›

How long does it take for my booster to start working? Your body's immune response kicks in almost immediately after a booster dose. It may take around two weeks to reach maximum protection.

When do I need a 3rd booster? ›

To be considered fully vaccinated, ALL children ages 6 months – 4 years who received the Pediatric Pfizer vaccinations should get a third primary shot given at least 8 weeks after the 2nd dose.

Which COVID vaccine is safest? ›

The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are strongly recommended as safe and effective at preventing serious illness or death from COVID-19. From December 2020 to December 2021, about 470 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine have been given in the U.S.

Are you fully vaccinated even if you don't have the booster? ›

Am I still considered “fully vaccinated” if I don't get a booster shot? People are considered fully vaccinated two weeks after completing their primary series. If you are moderately to severely immunocompromised, you should also get an additional primary dose to complete your primary series.

What is fully vaccinated? ›

The CDC uses the term “up to date” regarding vaccines and boosters when eligible. Individuals are considered “fully vaccinated” (1) two weeks after receiving the second dose in a two dose COVID-19 vaccine series or (2) two weeks after receiving a single dose COVID-19 vaccine.

Do any of the vaccines protect against Omicron? ›

The findings from this study suggest that, although mRNA vaccines and previous infection provide less protection against infection with the omicron variant than they did against earlier variants, boosters continue to provide substantial additional effectiveness, including among previously infected persons.

Does the Pfizer vaccine work against Omicron? ›

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech updated vaccines that target the original COVID-19 viral strain and two Omicron variants (BA. 4/BA.

Videos

1. Vacunación contra la COVID-19
(PAHO TV)
2. ¿Por qué debemos vacunarnos contra la COVID-19?
(PAHO TV)
3. Las Vacunas Contra El COVID-19: Mitos, Rumores, y la Verdad
(Michigan Medicine)
4. Vacunas contra la COVID-19: una carrera contra el tiempo
(World Health Organization (WHO))
5. Refuerzo y Vacunas COVID-19: Un Doctor Responde sus Preguntas
(UC San Diego Health)
6. ¿Cómo funcionarían las vacunas contra el COVID-19 en el cuerpo?
(Washington State Department of Health)
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