Vacunas contra el COVID-19 (2023)

Actualizado11/28/2022

  • Estar"aldía" ensusvacunascontra elCOVID-19
  • DiferentesMarcasdeVacunas
  • Elegibilidadparalavacuna
  • LugaresparaVacunarse

Desde el principio de esta pandemia a principios de 2020, ha habido un esfuerzoa nivel mundial para producir una vacunaeficazcontrael COVID-19 que pueda prevenir de manera segura la propagación de este virus. Menos de un año después, como producto de ese esfuerzo sin precedentes, la cooperación mundial y los avances científicos anteriores, se crearon muchas vacunas contra COVID-19 y se aprobaron tres para su uso en los Estados Unidos. Todas estas vacunas son muy seguras y extremadamente efectivas.

Si aún no se ha vacunado, puede hacerlo hoyde forma gratuitaen muchos lugares del condadodeBenton, no se necesita seguro médico ni identificación.

(Video) ¿Cuáles son los diferentes tipos de vacunas contra el COVID y cómo funcionan?

Estar "al día" en sus vacunas contra el COVID-19

Cuando las vacunas contra el COVID-19 estuvieron disponibles por primera vez a principios de 2021, se habló mucho sobre lo que significaba estar “totalmente vacunado”. Este término significaba que habían pasado al menos dos semanas desde que completó su serie primaria de una vacuna COVID-19: dos dosis para Pfizer o Moderna, o su dosis única de Johnson & Johnson.

Desde entonces, ha habido una serie de cambios. “Estaral día” significa, en los términos más simples, que ha recibido todas las dosis de la vacuna contra el COVID-19 para las que califica. La siguiente tabla brinda orientación específica sobre quién sí y quién no se considera al día con sus vacunas.

Estado de vacunaciónDefinición
Estar al día

Para personas de 6 meses a 4 años:

  • Completó su serie primaria de Pfizer oModerna

Para personas de 5 años y mayor:

  • Recibió una dosis de refuerzo de la vacuna bivalente o
  • Recibió una dosis de refuerzo dentro de los 2 meses o
  • Completó la serie primaria de cualquier marca de vacunacontra el COVID-19 en los últimos 2 meses
No estar al día

Para todos:

  • No vacunadaso
  • No ha completado la serie primaria de ninguna vacunade COVID-19 o
  • Completó la serie primaria de cualquier marca de vacuna COVID-19 hace más de 2 meses y no ha recibido un refuerzo bivalente

DiferentesMarcas de Vacunas

Actualmente hay cuatro vacunas contra el COVID-19 autorizadas para su uso en los Estados Unidos: BioNTech y Comirnaty de Pfizer, Moderna/Spikevax, Johnson & Johnson y Novavax. Los cuatro fueron autorizados originalmente por la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos (FDA) mediante una Autorización de uso de emergencia (EUA), Pfizer y Moderna en diciembre de 2020, Johnson & Johnson en febrero de 2021 y Novavax en julio de 2022.

(Video) Vacunas contra la COVID-19: una carrera contra el tiempo

La vacuna de Pfizer, Comirnity, recibió la aprobación total de la FDA para su uso en personas mayores de 16 años, mientras que la vacuna original de BioNTech permanece disponible para personas mayores de 6 meses bajo la EUA. La vacuna de Moderna también recibió la aprobación total para todas las personas mayores de 18 años con el nombre de Spikevax, y en junio de 2022 recibió una EUA para su uso en niños de 6 meses a 17 años. Johnson & Johnson también busca la aprobación total de la FDA.

Las vacunas Pfizer/Comirnaty, Moderna/Spikevax, Johnson & Johnson y Novavax no son intercambiables para su serie primaria de vacunación. Si recibe una primera dosis de Pfizer, Moderna o Novavax, su segunda dosis debe ser de la misma marca.

  • Pfizer/Comirnaty
    • Estamarcadevacunaesadministradaen unaseriede dosdosis, la segunda dosis se administra 21 días después de la primera.El tiempo entre dosis puede alargarse para reducir el riesgo de miocarditis:hable con su médico para aprender mas sobre sus opciones. Comirnaty está completamente aprobadapor la FDA para su uso en personas mayores de 16 añosy la vacuna BioNTech todavía está aprobada para su uso en personas mayores de 5 años bajo una EUA. Pregúntele a su proveedor qué vacuna se está usando. Se recomienda un refuerzo bivalente actualizado para todas las personas mayores de 5 años al menos 2 meses después de completar su serie primaria, o desde su último refuerzo monovalente. Para mayor información, repase la hoja informativa dePfizer-BioNTech.
    • Para niños de las edades 6 meses a 4 años,la vacuna contra el COVID-19 dePfizeres una serie de tres dosis,siendo la segunda dosis administrada 21 días despues de la primera dosis, y la tercera dosis administrada 2 meses despues de la segunda dosis.
  • Moderna/Spikevax
    • Estamarcadevacunaesadministradaen unaseriede dosdosis, la segunda dosis se administra 28 días después de la primera. Eltiempoentredosispuedealargarseparareducirelriesgodemiocarditis:hablecon sumédicoparaaprendermassobresusopciones. Spikevax está totalmente aprobadapor la FDA para su uso en personas mayores de 18 años. Se recomienda una dosis de refuerzo para todas las personas mayores de 18 años al menos 5 meses después de completar la serie primaria. Se autoriza un segundo refuerzo para personas inmunocomprometidas, mayores de 50 años o de 12 a 49 años.Para mayor información, repase la hoja informativa de Moderna/Spikevax.
    • Paraniñosdelasedades6mesesa 6años,lavacunacontra el COVID-19 de Moderna es unaseriede dosdosis,siendolasegundadosisadministrada28díasdespuesde laprimeradosis.
  • Johnson &Johnson/Janssen
    • Estamarcadevacuna se administra en una dosis única y está autorizado bajo una EUA para su uso en personas mayores de 18 años. Se recomienda una dosis de refuerzo al menos 2 meses después de completar la serie primaria. Se autoriza un segundo refuerzo para personas quienessolo han recibidouna dosis primaria y un refuerzo de Johnson & Johnson, y para personas mayores de 50 años o inmunocomprometidas, pero debe ser una vacuna de ARNm: Pfizer o Moderna.Para mayorinformación,repaselahojainformativade Johnson & Johnson.
    • La FDA ha limitado el uso autorizado de esta vacuna a personas mayores de 18 años que no pueden recibir otra vacuna COVID-19 autorizada, o que eligen la vacuna Johnson & Johnson porque de otro modo no recibirían una vacuna COVID-19. Este cambio se debea la actualización de análisis sobre los riesgos de un problema de coagulación poco común, aunque se determinó que los beneficios de la vacuna aún superan los riesgos cuando otra vacuna no es una opción.
  • Novavax
    • Administrada en una serie de dos dosis, la segunda dosis se administra 21 días después de la primera. Novavax está autorizado para su uso en personas mayores de 12 años. Las dosis se pueden retrasar para reducir el riesgo de miocarditis: hable con su proveedor médico para obtener más información. Novavax está disponible bajo una EUA. Se recomienda una dosis de refuerzo al menos dos meses después de completar la serie primaria, pero deben ser las vacunas bivalentes actualizadas de Pfizer o Moderna, que se basan en ARNm. Para obtener más información, consulte la hoja informativa de Novavax.
    • Novavax es una vacuna basada en proteínas, la misma tecnología que se ha utilizado durante décadas en vacunas contra la gripe, el tétanos y otras vacunas. No usa ARNm como lo hacen las vacunas de Pfizer o Moderna.
    • ¿Está buscando la vacuna Novavax en el Condado de Benton? Comience con su proveedor de atención primaria.

Los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades y la Autoridad de Salud de Oregón ya aprobaron un refuerzo para las tres marcas de vacunas. Para obtener más información, consulte aquí.

(Video) ¿Qué debemos saber sobre las vacunas contra la COVID-19?

Elegibilidad para la vacuna

Actualmente, todas las personas de 6 meses o más calificanpara recibir la vacunacontra el COVID-19 y se recomienda una dosis de refuerzo para cualquier persona mayor de 5 años. Los niños de 6 meses a 14 años deben tener la aprobación por escrito delpadre o tutor para ser vacunados. Todas las personas mayores de 5añospuedenrecibir un refuerzo de vacuna bivalente actualizado. (Bivalente se refiere a una vacuna que contiene dos cepas: el SARS-CoV-2 original y una variante de Omicron. Para muchas personas, este será su segundo refuerzo, pero podría ser el tercero o el primero).

La vacuna contra el COVID-19 es gratuita, incluso si no tieneseguro médico. No necesita ser ciudadano o residente de los Estados Unidos ni vivir permanentemente en Oregón para recibir la vacunacontra el COVID-19y no se requiere identificación.

LugaresparaVacunarse

La vacuna está ampliamente disponible en farmacias comerciales,en consultorios médicos y en eventos de vacunación más pequeños alrededor del Condado de Benton.

(Video) El camino hacia una vacuna contra la COVID-19

¿No estásegurocuál es la ubicación más cercana para ustedo está teniendo dificultad en encontrar una cita? Consulte nuestra lista de consultorios médicos y farmacias que ofrecen la vacuna, nuestros próximoseventos o puede consultar estos sitios web: getvaccinated.oregon.gov y vaccines.gov. También puede enviar un mensaje de texto con ORVAX al 898211 o llamar al 541-766-6120 para obtener más ayuda.

(Video) ¿Cómo funcionarían las vacunas contra el COVID-19 en el cuerpo?

FAQs

How long does vaccine immunity last for Covid? ›

Earlier research from the CDC suggested that protection from the Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines could start to fade around 4 months after a booster dose. Protection against COVID-19 hospital stays seemed to drop from 91% soon after receiving a booster dose to 78% at the 4-month mark.

Why should you be vaccinated? ›

COVID-19 Vaccines Are Effective

People who have certain medical conditions or who are taking medications that weaken their immune system are at increased risk of severe COVID-19 illness and death.

Is Pfizer or Moderna better? ›

Both of the mRNA vaccines available in the US are highly effective against severe COVID-19, but recent studies suggest that Moderna's elicits a stronger immune response and might be better at preventing breakthrough infections.

What are the advantages of the Covid vaccine? ›

Advantages of Vaccination

Here's how a COVID-19 vaccination benefits you: Protection against COVID-19: The best means of staying healthy is to avoid infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. If, however, you do become infected, vaccination appears to limit the risk of developing severe or even fatal symptoms.

Will COVID be a yearly vaccine? ›

Meanwhile, White House officials have suggested that COVID-19 vaccinations are moving down a path toward becoming yearly, with a schedule similar to flu shots. The annual COVID-19 vaccines will match the circulating strain of coronavirus that is predominant in the population at that time. "That's a likely scenario.

Can you still get COVID-19 after being fully vaccinated? ›

COVID-19 vaccines also help protect against infection. People who are vaccinated may still get COVID-19.

Which Covid vaccine is safest? ›

The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are strongly recommended as safe and effective at preventing serious illness or death from COVID-19. From December 2020 to December 2021, about 470 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine have been given in the U.S.

How do vaccines protect us? ›

How do vaccines work? Vaccines help your immune system fight infections faster and more effectively. When you get a vaccine, it sparks your immune response, helping your body fight off and remember the germ so it can attack it if the germ ever invades again.

What are the risks of vaccinating? ›

Vaccines do have some risk for adverse reaction, the most common being redness and soreness at the injection site or fever and allergic reactions.

Does Moderna cause blood clots? ›

Do COVID-19 vaccines cause blood clots? The Moderna or Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccines have not been shown to increase the risk of blood clots in multiple studies.

Which vaccine is better for Omicron? ›

"Based on the data supporting their authorizations, the bivalent COVID-19 vaccines are expected to provide increased protection against the currently circulating omicron variant," says Dr.

What booster is best for Omicron? ›

Three of these vaccines, Pfizer, Moderna, and Novavax, are also recommended as booster shots. The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines initially targeted the original strain of the virus, but updated versions are now available. These updated (bivalent) booster shots target both the original SARS-CoV-2 virus and the Omicron BA.

How long does COVID last? ›

How long it takes to recover from COVID-19 is different for everybody. Many people feel better in a few days or weeks and most will make a full recovery within 12 weeks. But for some people, symptoms can last longer.

Why get vaccinated if you still get COVID? ›

Breakthrough infections lead a lot of people to ask the question, why should I get vaccinated if I can still get COVID-19? The answer is because if you're vaccinated you will not get as seriously sick and are less likely to die. In addition, you will help to stop this pandemic.

Does the Covid vaccine work? ›

COVID-19 vaccines are effective at preventing severe disease, hospitalization, and death. However, since vaccines are not 100% effective at preventing infection, some people who are up to date with the recommended vaccines will still get COVID-19.

Is a Covid booster necessary? ›

Key takeaways. An additional primary shot of a COVID-19 vaccine is recommended for people who are vaccinated and might not have had a strong enough immune response. In contrast, a booster dose is recommended for people who are vaccinated and whose immune response weakened over time.

How often will I need a Covid booster? ›

There are 2 booster doses of the coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine you may be able to get: a 1st booster for everyone aged 16 and over, and some people aged 12 to 15 who are at high risk from COVID-19, once they have completed their primary COVID-19 vaccination course.

Do you need Covid booster every year? ›

CDC recommends that people ages 5 years and older receive one updated (bivalent) booster if it has been at least 2 months since their last COVID-19 vaccine dose, whether that was: Their final primary series dose, or. An original (monovalent) booster.

Can I get COVID twice? ›

Reinfection with the virus that causes COVID-19 means a person was infected, recovered, and then later became infected again. After recovering from COVID-19, most individuals will have some protection from repeat infections. However, reinfections do occur after COVID-19.

What are some symptoms of the new Omicron variant of COVID-19? ›

All of the variants, including omicron BA.5, cause similar COVID-19 symptoms:
  • runny nose.
  • cough.
  • sore throat.
  • fever.
  • headaches.
  • muscle pain.
  • fatigue.
19 Oct 2022

How quickly do Omicron variant symptoms appear? ›

“Most patients are coming in with three or four days of incubation,” Meza said.

Who shouldn't get the Covid vaccine? ›

If you are allergic to PEG, you should not get an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Ask your doctor if you can get the J&J/Janssen vaccine. If you are allergic to polysorbate, you should not get the J&J/Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. Ask your doctor if you can get an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine.

Are Moderna and Pfizer the same? ›

Moderna uses the same mRNA technology as Pfizer-BioNTech and had a similarly high efficacy at preventing symptomatic disease when the companies applied for authorization; it also needs to be stored in freezer-level temperatures.

Which Corona vaccine is best? ›

COVID vaccine Covishield was developed by Oxford-AstraZeneca, and is being manufactured by the Serum Institute of India. It is a viral vector vaccine, and is about 90 percent effective. There are several vaccination centers across India that have Covishield available.

Do the vaccines work? ›

Vaccines are very effective — and they're the best protection against many serious diseases. Most people who get vaccinated will have immunity (protection) against the disease.

What is the main point of vaccines? ›

Vaccines give you immunity to a disease without you getting sick first. They are made using killed or weakened versions of the disease-causing germ or parts of the germ (called antigens). For some vaccines, genetic engineering is used to make the antigens used in the vaccine.

Where does the vaccine go in your body? ›

Viral vector COVID-19 vaccines are given in a muscle in the upper arm. The vector virus in the vaccine is not the virus that causes COVID-19, but a different, harmless virus. It enters the muscle cells and uses the cells' machinery to produce a harmless piece of what is called a spike protein.

What vaccines have saved lives? ›

Diseases You Almost Forgot About (Thanks to Vaccines)
  • Polio.
  • Tetanus.
  • Flu (Influenza)
  • Hepatitis B.
  • Hepatitis A.
  • Rubella.
  • Hib.
  • Measles.
15 Sept 2022

What are five importance of vaccination? ›

Vaccines prevent the spread of contagious, dangerous, and deadly diseases. These include measles, polio, mumps, chicken pox, whooping cough, diphtheria, HPV, and COVID-19. The first vaccine discovered was the smallpox vaccine. Smallpox was a deadly illness.

Is the Johnson and Johnson vaccine safe? ›

Summary. On April 24, the Western States Scientific Safety Review Workgroup concluded the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is safe and effective and recommended resuming use of the vaccine for all eligible Californians.

What are the signs of a blood clot? ›

  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Faster than normal or irregular heartbeat.
  • Chest pain or discomfort, which usually worsens with a deep breath or coughing.
  • Coughing up blood.
  • Very low blood pressure, lightheadedness, or fainting.

How do you check for blood clots? ›

Duplex ultrasonography is an imaging test that uses sound waves to look at the flow of blood in the veins. It can detect blockages or blood clots in the deep veins. It is the standard imaging test to diagnose DVT. A D-dimer blood test measures a substance in the blood that is released when a clot breaks up.

How do you know if you have blood clots from Covid? ›

Some people who test positive for COVID-19 develop tiny blood clots that cause reddish or purple areas on the toes, which can itch or be painful. Sometimes called COVID toe, the rash resembles frostbite.

Should I mix Pfizer and Moderna? ›

Public health has also made it clear that it is safe to mix and match Pfizer and Moderna COVID vaccines for booster shots.

Is AstraZeneca still being used? ›

The COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca authorised under Regulation 174 remains in use and its product information has been updated in line with the product information of the GB CMA . The MHRA regularly publishes reports of the safety of the COVID-19 vaccines.

Which Covid vaccine is best for over 65? ›

Getting vaccinated prevents severe illness, hospitalizations and death. People 65 and older who received both doses of either Pfizer or Moderna vaccines showed a 94% reduced risk of COVID-19 related hospitalization. Unvaccinated people should get vaccinated and continue masking until they are fully vaccinated.

Do you have to wait 8 months to get Covid booster? ›

For everyone else ages 18 and up, regardless of which COVID-19 vaccine you received for your initial vaccinations, you may receive a Pfizer or Moderna bivalent booster at least two months after completion of your primary series or most recent booster.

Can you get Omicron even if you have a booster? ›

Not necessarily. Breakthrough infections are possible, meaning you can still get Omicron if you are vaccinated. Fortunately, similar to with the Delta variant, vaccines and boosters will help protect you from severe symptoms, hospitalization and death.

Is the new Omicron booster safe? ›

A bivalent omicron BA. 1-containing booster vaccine is safe and elicits higher antibody responses against Omicron BA. 1 than the original COVID-19 vaccine, according to new data from a phase 2/3 clinical trial. The antibody responses are consistent between younger and older adults in the study.

What is the first symptom of Delta variant? ›

Delta variant symptoms are the same

Typically, vaccinated people are either asymptomatic or have very mild symptoms if they contract the delta variant. Their symptoms are more like those of a common cold, such as cough, fever or headache, with the addition of significant loss of smell.

Will my COVID go away after 5 days? ›

If you test positive for COVID-19 and have no symptoms – you may end after day 5. If you test positive for COVID-19 and have symptoms – you may end after day 5 if: You are fever-free for 24 hours (without the use of fever-reducing medication) Your symptoms are improving.

Can you have COVID and test negative? ›

A negative result means it's likely you are not infectious. But a negative test is not a guarantee you do not have COVID-19 and there's still a chance you may be infectious. You should follow advice on how to avoid catching and spreading the virus.

How long does the COVID vaccine last? ›

We don't know how long protection lasts for those who are vaccinated. What we do know is that COVID-19 has caused very serious illness and death for a lot of people.

What are disadvantages of COVID-19 vaccine? ›

Pain, swelling, or redness where the vaccine was injected. Mild fever. Chills. Feeling tired.

Do I have to get vaccinated again? ›

Everyone 5+ who has had their primary series should get the updated booster at least 2 months after any COVID vaccine or booster dose. You should get the updated booster even if you have received a booster shot before. Children 6 months to 17 years old may receive either the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine.

Can you still get Covid after vaccine? ›

COVID-19 vaccines also help protect against infection. People who are vaccinated may still get COVID-19.

What are the risks and side effects of the vaccine? ›

Side effects of the coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination
  • having a painful, heavy feeling and tenderness in the arm where you had your injection.
  • feeling tired.
  • headache, aches and chills.
  • diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting.
  • mild flu-like symptoms.
27 Oct 2022

What are disadvantages of Covid 19 vaccine? ›

Pain, swelling, or redness where the vaccine was injected. Mild fever. Chills. Feeling tired.

Videos

1. Vacunas contra el COVID: Verdades, mitos y preguntas
(Washington State Department of Health)
2. ¿Por qué debemos vacunarnos contra la COVID-19?
(PAHO TV)
3. Dosis de refuerzo de la vacuna contra el COVID-19
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC))
4. Las Vacunas Contra el COVID-19: Su Seguridad y Diversidad
(U.S. Food and Drug Administration)
5. Las vacunas contra el COVID-19: Seguridad – Dr. Castillo
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC))
6. ¿Sirven o no sirven las vacunas contra el covid?
(DW Español)
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